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What problems should be paid attention to when welding aluminum with laser welding machine?

Apr 20,2023 | TOPTEK

Welding of steel and aluminum alloys themselves can be quite problematic. A typical problem is a sharp drop in the strength of welded joints. A more serious problem is that there is no tin at all. The melting temperature of steel is generally around 1600°C, while that of aluminum alloy is around 600°C.
Therefore, the welding heat source is very critical. In fusion welding, butt joints of steel and aluminum are not easily melted at the same time. Steel and aluminum have very different coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. Aluminum is more likely to cause greater thermal deformation and thermal stress, and is also easier to conduct heat.
The melting of aluminum alloy requires a higher heat source power density. Another serious problem in steel and aluminum welding is the production of iron-aluminum intermetallic compounds, which are brittle phases that severely reduce the strength of the welded joint in the weld.
It is only possible to avoid these brittle phases by keeping their size below 10 microns. However, the formation and growth of second-phase particles at high temperature and during solidification is a natural process. It is not easy to control the nucleation process and growth process of solid-state transition in a controllable range.

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