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Solutions to Three Difficulties in Aluminum Alloy Laser Welding

Apr 20,2023 | TOPTEK

Laser technology has received special attention in the field of aluminum alloy welding due to its characteristics of low welding heat input, small influence on the welding heating area, and not easily deformed. But on the other hand, due to its own defects, there are three major welding difficulties in aluminum alloy laser welding. So how to solve it cleverly?

1. The material has low absorption rate of laser light
1) Take appropriate surface pretreatment process. Such as grinding, surface chemical etching, surface plating and other pretreatment measures. Improve the absorption rate of the material to the laser.
2) Reduce the spot size and increase the laser power density.
3) Change the welding structure so that the laser beam is reflected multiple times in the gap. Easy-to-weld aluminum alloy

2. Easy to produce pores and thermal cracks
1) After several welding experiments, it was found that adjusting the laser power waveform during the welding process can reduce the unstable collapse of pores, and changing the laser beam irradiation angle and applying a magnetic field during welding can reduce the pores generated during welding.
2) When using YAG laser, crystal cracks can be reduced by adjusting the pulse waveform and controlling the heat input.

3. During the welding process, the mechanical properties of the welded joint decrease
The mechanical properties of welded joints are caused by the instability of pores generated by aluminum alloy welding. Aluminum alloy mainly includes three elements: Zn, Mg and Lv. When soldering, aluminum has a higher boiling point than the other two elements. Therefore, some low-boiling point alloy elements can be added when welding aluminum alloy elements, which is conducive to the formation of small holes and the firmness of welding.

The high efficiency of aluminum alloy laser welding makes people look forward to its development prospects. Therefore, some researchers have continuously developed new technologies such as laser-arc coincidence technology and bifocal technology to improve the stability of the welding process and improve the quality of the weld.

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