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Differences in Laser Welding of Different Steel Materials

Apr 26,2023 | TOPTEK

Laser welding machine is a non-contact welding method. The weld and weld pool can only be achieved if the light is focused so that the energy of the light is at the focal point. Because different materials absorb light differently; the thickness of the material is different. Steel is a material widely used in contemporary industry, and the application of laser welding technology on steel has been relatively mature. But there are still big differences when laser welding different steel materials.

Laser welding of carbon steel and common alloy steel: In most cases, laser welding of carbon steel works well, and its welding quality depends on the content of impurities. Like other welding processes, sulfur and phosphorus are sensitive factors for welding cracks. In general, laser welding of stainless steel is easier than conventional welding to obtain high-quality joints. Sensitization does not become a major problem due to the small heat-affected zone at high welding speeds. Compared with carbon steel, stainless steel has a low thermal conductivity and it is easier to obtain deep penetration narrow welds.
In order to obtain satisfactory welding quality, preheating is required when the carbon content exceeds 0.25%. When steels with different carbon contents are welded to each other, the welding torch can be slightly biased to the side of low-carbon materials to ensure the quality of the joints. Low carbon rimmed steel is not suitable for laser welding due to its high sulfur and phosphorus content. Low carbon killed steel has good weldability due to its low impurity content. Both medium and high carbon steels and common alloy steels can be laser welded well, but require preheating and post-weld treatment to relieve stress and avoid cracks.

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