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What are the parameters affecting the laser welding machine?

Apr 21,2023 | TOPTEK

The parameters that have a direct impact on the quality of the precision laser welding machine are: the energy of the laser pulse, the diameter of the laser beam spot, the pulse width of the laser, the frequency of the laser pulse, the pulse waveform of the light, the absorbance of the material to be welded, the welding speed, protective gas, etc.

1. Focus diameter of laser spot

This is an extremely important parameter reflecting the design performance of the laser. The unit is (mm), which determines the laser power density and processing range of the laser welding machine. If the optical design of the laser is reasonable and advanced, the laser energy is concentrated, and the focus is accurate, the diameter of the laser spot can be controlled within the range of 0.2mm-2mm, but whether the diameter of the laser focus can be controlled within the range of 0.2mm-2mm is a strict requirement of the laser generator. Require. test. Domestic lasers just want to reduce costs. Therefore, the processing of laser devices is simple and the design is not rigorous. The laser diverges severely in the resonator, making it difficult to focus accurately. The weight is 0.2mm, but the minimum can only reach 0.5mm, and due to the divergence of the laser, the output laser beam cannot form a regular circle, resulting in the actual laser irradiation area being too large, and weld ablation occurs, that is, no welding at both ends of the weld. The necessary laser exposure causes the ends of the weld to be depressed. This phenomenon has a particularly serious impact on grinding and polishing molds, and sometimes even makes the mold scrapped.

2. The frequency of the laser pulse of the laser welding machine

This is the ability to reflect how many pulses the laser can emit in one second, and the unit is (Hz). The first thing to explain is that laser energy is used for welding metals. When the laser power is constant, the higher the frequency, the smaller the output energy of each laser. Therefore, when we need to ensure that the energy of the laser is sufficient to melt the metal, the output frequency of the laser can be determined by considering the processing speed. Taking laser repairing abrasive tools as an example, 15Hz can already meet the needs of welding. If the frequency is too high, the pulse energy of the laser will be too low, resulting in welding failure.

3. Energy of the laser pulse

Refers to the maximum output energy of a single laser pulse, in J (joule). This is a main parameter of the laser, which determines the maximum energy that the laser of the laser welding machine can generate. According to the purpose of mold repair, the laser energy below 70J can meet the needs of any occasion, no matter how large the energy is, it is useless, or it is not used at all. The volume of the laser power supply and the volume of the radiator continue to increase, thereby reducing the efficiency of the power supply. 

4. Laser pulse waveform

For laser welding machines that use pulsed lasers for welding, the laser pulse waveform is an important issue in pulsed laser welding. When a high-intensity laser is incident on the surface of a material, the metal surface will reflect 60% to 98% of the laser energy, and the reflectivity varies with the surface temperature. Therefore, different metals have different reflectivity and utilization of laser light. To carry out effective welding, lasers with different waveforms must be input so that the metal structure at the weld can be crystallized in an optimal way to form a consistent structure of the metal in order to form a high-quality weld.

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